Retention, Retention, Retention: Beyond the 5 Year threshold

Children benefit from being taught by experienced teachers. This is a pretty uncontroversial and unremarkable statement.

Schools are finding it more difficult to retain their most experienced teachers and teachers are continuing to leave the profession altogether. Sadly, in the current education climate, this is also a pretty unremarkable statement.

I shan’t bother to quote the extensive research published on the recruitment and retention issues in this post. Or indeed the research on working hours and teacher well being. Instead my own thoughts turn to a solution.

Before any solution can be found we must first explore the causes of our inability to recruit and retain teachers who are fit to serve in our profession – and I would emphasise the last point here. We don’t just want bodies in classrooms – we want talented, intelligent and inspirational people in classrooms up and down the country.

Of course, an enormous amount of hand wringing has already taken place regarding this matter. Colleagues with far more talent, experience and skill with the written word than I, have attempted to offer their own insights. I would offer my own in any case.

A number of attempts have already been made to offer solutions to this problem. These range from economic solutions such as more pay or the writing off off student loans to ‘softer’ solutions that suggest ways in which workloads and bureaucracy can be reduced. To my mind, although well intended and logical, these solutions only chip away at the edges of a problem that runs far deeper. The issue of recruitment and retention lies in the heart of the system itself. Much has been written recently of the global neo-liberal approach towards education reform, particularly in the excellent Flip The System; Changing Education From The Ground Up (Evers & Kneyber), and of the Standards Movement (Sir Ken Robinson). I believe that the issues with teacher retention can be directly traced back to the system itself and here is where solutions can be found.

For those not familiar with the concept of neo-liberal reform, such reforms take their lead from the market orientated reforms that many governments have imposed as a way of increasing efficiency in markets. Initially limited to energy supply and rail travel, there is now a movement to implement  in public sector areas such as education and healthcare. To simplify further, the rationale is that competition breeds efficiency. A competitive education system that incorporates league tables and parental choice should, so the theory goes, raise standards. The result is a high stakes game where the risks are far too great for educational leaders to dare to afford the sort of autonomy to teachers that many of them were expecting and promised when they came through their training. Instead teachers often find themselves on a ‘systems treadmill’, plugged into a educational Matrix where they have no control over curriculum and very little real control over delivery. In short their professional autonomy, and in fact their very professionalism itself, is non existent.

Highly hierarchical organisational systems, viewed as being necessary in a high stakes neo-liberal educational system,  further erode what little autonomy teachers have left.

So how can this be addressed? How do we move beyond this system? Put bluntly – we cannot ‘bend’ this system. The politicisation of education and the high stakes for educational leaders makes this impossible. The only solution is a new system altogether.

However, I would like to suggest 3 policies that might help (to paraphrase Yoda) to restore balance to the system and, at the same time, help with recruitment and retention of teachers in the UK.

Proposals;

  1. Teachers receive incremental pay increases for their first 5 years in the profession- this is dependent on them successfully meeting the teaching standards in each of these years
  2. Upon completion of these 5 years of service teachers are ‘tenured’ – their performance will be loosely monitored by educational leaders, but they will be afforded far more professional autonomy whilst they remain in the profession. Salary equal to the upper point on the upper pay range (roughly £38,000 today)
  3. Publish school performance data showing a 4 year average only. Remove all annual data from national league tables.

The proposals suggested are, admittedly, very narrow and hardly constitute a revolution in education! However, a brief rationale for these is offered below;

  1. There is, of course, a requirement to monitor and support all new entrants to the profession. The overarching aim here must be to support them to improve to be the best teachers that they can possibly be. The incremental pay increase acts as a monetary reward in recognition of the tremendous efforts that these young teachers will invest in their chosen profession.
  2. The pot of gold at the end of the rainbow! Teachers will know that if they continue to sustain a high standard in their first 5 years then the reward will be a true recognition of their talents and will be given a degree of autonomy befitting of a professional with 5 years experience.
  3. Ideally all externally published league tables would be done away with! However, this is probably a little too unrealistic – even for a harmless blog! A four year average should at least serve to provide school leaders with a little more breathing space and allow them to briefly jump off the ‘accountability treadmill’ and focus purely on classrooms.

 

 

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Teaching Economics as a Non-Specialist: 10 Tips for Survival

worried teacher

The American poet (and teacher) Mark Van Doren once said that The art of teaching is the art of assisting discovery. But what if you the teacher are required to go through this process of discovery prior to teaching thirty or so teenagers an entire A Level?  In the world of budget squeezes and rationalisation that is indeed what many of us are increasingly being asked to do. Below are my top ten tips for those of you who have been asked to teach Economics for the first time.

 

 

1. Plan aheadplan ahead

Whichever examination board you are following, the Economics syllabus has a clear line of progression. The economic problem leads into resource allocation… resource allocation leads into markets… markets takes you into supply and demand and so on and so on. Speak with faculty colleagues. They may have a programme of study that you can adopt as your own or alternatively most of the examination boards offer something similar. It is absolutely vital that before you begin you have a clear plan of delivery for the entire year. I would recommend a week-by-week plan to give you some flexibility. Take some time to think about which topics will be most challenging (and so will require more time). If you are unsure help can be found in the points below.

 

2. Get to know the assessment model

I can’t stress this point enough. Of course it is vital that you understand how an economics paper will be assessed so that your students can have the best chance of success in their exams however in economics it runs deeper than this. The ability to analyse and evaluate key concepts is a skill that a good economist must develop in order to be able to fully understand the subject itself. The ability to make arguments using their economic ‘tool kit’ is not just vital in the context of an exam paper but also an integral part of being an economist. Examination boards are now providing mark schemes with more detail than ever. Use these in conjunction with past papers and examiners reports to help you to get a feel for the sort of questions your students will be asked in those all important examinations.

3. Ask for advice or teaching materials from colleagues

There is no shame in asking colleagues to share their teaching ideas or materials with you if you are not sure of how to approach a particular topic – indeed most of us enjoy nothing more than the opportunity to show off our resources! Your colleagues will appreciate how tough it is to teach something away from your specialism and they will be happy to help out with information or materials. Make sure you take the opportunity to pick their brains about the order in which they deliver materials – they may even have an old scheme of work that they could pass onto you.

4. Book yourself onto a course

Although exam boards are beginning to move away from the traditional one-day CPD courses, there are still a number of outstanding providers out there. These can be a priceless opportunity to gather resources and ideas, as well as an opportunity to meet other professionals and build your own professional network.

teachers planner5. Stay a couple of weeks ahead

For your own sanity and the good of your students try to prepare lessons a few weeks ahead. I know that this is often easier said than done but when teaching Economics it is useful to have an understanding of where the syllabus is heading. This will help you to plan and build resources for each lesson, knowing what key material students must understand before moving on.

 

 

6. Build cross curricular links

The Business Studies teachers that I work with are a rich and invaluable source of interesting information, facts and figures. As you progress through the Economics syllabus you will notice opportunities to bring in some of what you are doing with your Business Studies students – particularly anecdotes or quirky facts that will help to breath life into some of the more conceptual areas of the Economics syllabus.

7. Let the material teach itself!

Economics is a tremendously fun and engaging subject to teach because it is so relevant. Hardly a day will go by without a news report appearing that can be used by you with your students. Just listening to the radio on the drive into work can provide you with a lessons worth of discussion material. The usual media outlets are a treasure trove of useful news articles and video clips. Using these as a supplement to what you teach will add to its relevance and really enrich the discussions you are having with students in class.

resource bank8. Build your resource bank

The scale and speed in which you are able to do this may, of course, depend on what sort of budget you are working with. It is important that you make your case to the budget holder and are clear about what your requirements will be. Although many schools seem to be moving away from purchasing full sets of text books (at least in hard copy form) I would  recommend you purchase at least one copy of the exam board approved text. In most cases these will have been penned by chief or principal examiners and will follow the prescribed syllabus closely. Most will contain some useful activities or worksheets that can be used in class. My own centre follows OCR but I also have copies of texts approved for the other examination boards as the material is quite similar. There are a large number of educational resource providers in the market – my recommendation to begin with would be to stick with those companies that you trust and that have served your Business Studies needs well in the past.

9. Sign up to social mediasocial

Education is changing. Teachers are building their own professional networks through social media and are using these outlets to share ideas and resources. Business and Economics teachers already have a thriving social media network – particularly on the Twitter and LinkedIn platforms. These can be a rich source of ideas and resources and can also provide opportunities to ask for advice or guidance. Try searching in Twitter using #ecbusteach

10. Enjoy it and stay positive!

Admittedly I may be slightly biased but in my humble opinion, Economics is tremendously interesting and fun to teach. As a subject it is so diverse that students will inevitably build their own cross curricular links with other A Levels they are studying and this is where things can get really interesting for them. I believe there are few A Level subjects as relevant to students everyday lives and as important in helping them in understanding their own futures. There will be times when the content may appear a little daunting or counter-intuitive. Some of the more challenging diagrams can begin to resemble and aerial shot of Spaghetti Junction but stick with it and like your students, you will find that your own view of the world is altered irrevocably.

Political Doublespeak – Value for Money

I watched with a mixture amusement and awe at Russell Brands recent diagnostic of the British political system. In his own interminable style Brand brilliantly articulated the prism of growing of discontent, bemusement and apathy through which many of us now view the political class.

His words got me thinking about one particular pet hate of my own. One gnawing sound byte the grey men, in grey suits trot out when asked the same grey questions about public services. A sound byte that, having emanated from the direction of my television, always somehow manages to penetrate the white noise of  kids screaming or the wife asking me to put the kettle on.

The offending phrase in question is that of ‘value for money’.

The phrase has entered the lexicon of British political double speak, alongside others such as ‘accountability’, ‘hard working people’ or the delicious irony apparent when a politician claims to be ‘passionate’ about something in a distinctly ‘passionless’ way.

I have come to believe that politicians view our public services in the same way in which I view green vegetables or prostate examinations – its probably necessary to have some but lets try to keep them to a minimum shall we…

Along with their co-conspirators in the British press, the establishment has consistently sought to convince us that the only real measure of the value of pubic services is how cheaply they can be provided. They somehow dress this up in a way that convinces us that ‘value for money’ is synonymous with quality. It is not. 

Everything from healthcare, education, social care to local council services is measured by this dubious yardstick. Nothing escapes this ethos of perverse frugality. The saddest irony here is that a vast swathe of the electorate seem to been in agreement. Often displaying an astounding mixture of ignorance and memory loss, strike up a conversation with your average voter about public services and sooner or later the topic of ‘wasted money’ will raise its head.

We have been conditioned to think this way. Our media and political class feed us this line. ‘Taxpayers money ….’ they say.

To see through the web of deceit it is necessary to understand that the same people who are telling us that public services are a giant black hole of waste and opportunity cost are the same people who most likely have never had to rely on public services in any shape or form. They are the people who were educated at public schools, use private healthcare companies and live in affluent areas that don’t really have much need for a decent constabulary.

Of course, say any of this in public you are labelled a ‘socialist’ or a ‘red’ at best and at the worst….I’ll probably leave that to your imagination.

 

Technologies for learning

In June I had the pleasure of attending the annual EBEA conference at the East Midlands Conference Centre in Nottingham. One of the most striking things about this year’s conference was the emphasis on collaboration. Delegates were keen to get stuck into each workshop that they attended and share their own brilliant ideas about how they approach their teaching practice. One common theme that I noticed across the maelstrom of collaborative discussion taking place was the willingness to embrace technology.

I suspect this may be a side effect of many of us being forced to make up a teaching timetable with the delivery of some ICT lessons, or it may simply reflect the fluid nature of our subject matter and its relevance to current events? Regardless of the reasons behind this change it is undoubtedly the case that many in the Business and Economics teaching community are right in the vanguard of pedagogues willing to embrace technology and take risks.

Below is just a selection of the many wonderful ideas that were shared at the conference.

socrativeThanks go to Keith Hirst and Andrew Redfern who introduced us to this little gem in their workshop.  Socrative is a student response system that allows teachers to set educational exercises and games for students to complete via smart phones, tablets or laptops. It is unbelievably easy to use and the website contains a good instructional video that explains some of the different ways in which Socrative can be utilised. I have already started using it with my classes and the students have found it extremely simple to grasp.

http://www.socrative.com/

popplet

Popplet is a brilliant little piece of mind mapping software that I use on a regular basis with my students. It takes seconds for them to sign up and it couldn’t be simpler to use.

The technology allows you to easily create colourful mind maps as well as draw or insert photos into the mind maps to enhance the overall impact. Students can also collaborate on the same Popplet by hitting the Share button. The mind map saves automatically and students can return later and add additional content, building a map of their learning over the course.

http://popplet.com/

scoop itScoop.it!  is a superb website that enables you to easily ‘scoop’ content from webpages and place it into a ‘virtual magazine’ that can then be shared with students. Upon signing up to the website there are clear instructions on how to insert a handy button onto your toolbar that allows you to ‘scoop’ content quickly and efficiently with  just the click of a button. You are provided with a link to you page which can then be emailed to students. You can also stimulate discussion underneath each scoop in a handy comments section.

http://www.scoop.it/

quizletQuizlet is a free website that provides a learning platform for students that includes flashcards, multiple choice, matching and true/false quizzes. You start by creating your own set of key term definitions. Once you have completed these Quizlet does the rest and will automatically jumble these key terms up to create a variety of tests for students to complete.

http://quizlet.com/

go animate

Go! Animate is a great little website that allows students and teachers to create mini cartoon animations. Choose your background and main characters and then start to write their dialogue. This resource is particularly useful for those Friday afternoon lessons as an alternative to a handwritten or typed exam question. Simply ask the students to type their response into the dialogue boxes and get the characters to speak their words! You can also create your own videos and these can be saved and accessed later as a handy revision resource.

http://goanimate.com/

jingJing is a piece of free software that allows you to make live recordings directly from your laptop screens. Plug in a microphone and you can also record a voiceover at the same time. Once completed, this mini-video can then be easily exported as a Flash file, which the students can access at their convenience. I find it particularly useful when teaching diagrams in economics as it gives the students a visual and verbal description which they can refer back to at a later date as a revision resource. It is also particularly if you are planning to ‘flip’ your classroom.

http://www.techsmith.com/jing.html

triptico 2

Thanks go to Kirk Dodds and Ben Cox for introducing us to this little beauty in their workshop. Triptico is a superb piece of software that can easily be downloaded to your desktop. It is literally a treasure trove of interactive resources that work well on a range of technologies. At the moment I am enjoying using it through my interactive whiteboard running some of the interactive games which Triptico provides templates for.

http://www.triptico.co.uk/

Please feel free to leave your own suggestions for new technologies in the comment section.

Independent Learning

KEEP CALM 3INDEPENDENT LEARNING…hmmmm sounds great in practice. But what about all of these exams students have to sit? What about these targets I have to help students to meet? Surely there’s a inherent conflict in pursuing a strategy of independent learning and the far narrower requirement for students to transmit their learning in an examination?

dont go back

I have recently finished reading a very interesting book entitled ‘Don’t Go Back To School’ by Kio Stark.

The central premise developed by the author is that today’s education system is not designed to teach young people how to learn and is far more concerned with jamming their heads full of facts, figures and knowledge that can then be regurgitated at the appropriate time. Whilst this may provide students with a set of qualification certificates it does not provide them with something far more valuable – a set of skills that allow them to learn and acquire new skills in the future.

Knowing what to do when you don’t know what to do

independenceAs I read the authors words I realised their relevance. I consider myself to be pretty good at learning things. I have an inquisitive mind and also possess the skills to be able to find out new information. I also realised that I possess something much more valuable – resilience. If I don’t quite understand something I will stick at it and find a way to make sure that I do. I then realised that I only developed these skills in adulthood. Upon leaving school and, to a lesser extent, through my time at university I was pretty inconsistent in my approach to learning. It would seem that I had to actually leave education in order to learn how to learn! I’m certain many reading this will have had a similar experience. Most of us spend out lives refining our own learning processes through a kind of ‘trail-and-error’ process – what works for us we continue to use and what doesn’t work we discard. But is there anything we can do as teachers to speed this process along? How can we help you people to develop more effective learning skills and a degree of resilience that will allow them to become effective lifelong learners?

It would seem that I actually had to leave education to learn how to learn

I have recently been thinking about independent learning strategies in preparation for a presentation I am due to deliver at a national subject conference. I have made a list of potential independent learning strategies for delegates to discuss and have included this list below.

Please feel free to add any strategies that you have employed successfully with your students

Silent lessons – divide them into groups and put all of the lesson instructions onto the board. Students have to follow the instructions and solve problems themselves

Silent debate – give each group/pair a large sheet of paper. Teacher poses a question and students have a written debate on the sheet of paper.

Fish Bowl – a small group of students demonstrates or explains something to a larger group of students

Think Aloud – students are grouped and given a piece of text alongside some questions. One student reads the text whilst the others stop them to discuss as the answers to the questions become apparent from the text

Group Presentations – ask students to conduct some research on a topic and then feed this back to the rest of the class by presenting their findings

Give them a choice – provide students with a choice about how or what they complete in a lesson.

Problem Based Learning – provide students with a problem to solve. Students work in groups to establish what they already know, what they need to know and how they will access this new information

Go beyond the classroom – develop a culture where students willingly engage with your subject outside of their lessons (in addition/conjunction with homework). This could be through the use of news articles, books, video clips etc…..

Learning Tokens – students are given 3 tokens at the start of each lesson. Each time they ask a their teacher a question they have to hand over one of their tokens

Students set lesson objectives– encourage students to set their own lesson objectives. If possible require them to use learning language (describe, analyse, evaluate). Give students a list of verbs, adjectives and key words as prompts

Reflective culture – develop a culture where students are encouraged to reflect on their learning throughout the lesson. Develop strategies to support this

Embrace social media – Facebook, Twitter, Pinterest, Scoop.it – amongst many others!

Use technology for collaboration – Scoop.it, Wikispaces, Go Animate, Wordle, Proboards, Popplet, your schools VLE

Peer and self-assessment –     enough said! But how do we make this more effective?

Students develop success criteria-  ask your students work as a group to develop a mark scheme for a question you have set

Think-Pair-Share – teacher poses a question, students think about the questions, pair up with a classmate to discuss and then share their discussion with the class

Critiquing – teacher poses an idea or an argument from a particular point of view. The class then work together to find flaws in the argument presented by the teacher

Carousel questions – place large pieces of sugar paper round the room each containing a question. Students divided into small groups and spend a few minutes at each question adding their own ideas to the piece of paper

Exam rubrics – develop students understanding of assessment criteria. What strategies can we employ to support students?

Videos – create your own videos for use as a learning aid. Make this available to students so that they may access these at their own convenience

Flipped Classroom – deliver core content to students prior to the taught lesson. Students assimilate this content independently. This should allow the lesson focus to be switched towards the application and discussion of the content

Diagnostic assessments – students complete a self-diagnostic assessment of their progress. They can then develop their own learning plans to address areas of weakness

Writing mnemonics – develop class or individual writing mnemonics. These can then be used by students when self or peer assessing work. Particularly powerful if students develop their own versions

Group Research Project – students work collaboratively to research a topic and then present their findings to the rest of the class

Reflective Journal – encourage students to keep a record of what they have learnt this week in your lessons. Students could set up a blog to record this information

Students write starters – as a plenary get students to create a starter based on that lessons learning that could be used to recap next lesson

Slow writing – ask students to pause every few minutes (time set at your discretion) and review what they have just written, making an necessary corrections and adjustments

Planning for differentiation

Differentiation is a funny term in education. Mention the D-word to any educationalist and the response will often range from a glazed indifference to a subtle rolling of the eyes that takes place prior to a very professional acknowledgement of the important part that a differentiated classroom plays in effective education. Invariably differentiation is a subject that often fails to arouse much enthusiasm amongst teachers – perhaps any such enthusiasm has look since been extinguished  by the dousing properties of numerous leadership led INSET’s ?

The truth is we all understand the important place that differentiated instruction has in the classroom. The question I am interested in is ‘Are we differentiating in the correct way?’ The typical response when asked to define what differentiation means is to say that it involves ‘providing challenging activities that students are able to engage with’ put in even simpler language it is about ensuring work is suitably challenging for all learners and that enough support is provided for those that are less able.

But is that it?

Think about the best lessons that you have delivered. It’s almost certain that they all have one major feature in common – the students were interested. Despite all hours of the training and discussion on questioning, differentiation strategies, starters, plenaries, behaviour management, literacy, numeracy, feedback and assessment for learning – in the end the think that made it great was that they were interested!

So the big question we should be asking ourselves is HOW DO WE MAKE LESSONS INTERESTING? Of course it is a simple question to pose but a far more difficult task to answer. Think about the things that you yourself are interested in. Not only will there be a variety but these will vary from reader to reader. I find watching Manchester United incredibly interesting, my wife is interested in watching the Antiques Roadshow – we disagree on what is interesting in this instance. And therein lies the problem, children have different ideas on what ‘interesting’ means.

A couple of years ago I cam across the Blooms/Gardner Matrix shown below. This is essentially a planning tool that not only addresses the need to provide more rigorous and challenging activities for students (that’s the Blooms part) but also addresses the different ‘intelligences’ of children in order to provide a learning environment that is far richer and more interesting for more of the students more of the time. Of course we can’t meet the needs of all of the students all of the time (despite what the DFE seem to believe) but we can attempt to create a classroom where students arrive not knowing what to expect and one thing we can probably all agree on is that the unknown is interesting!

Below is an example of how the Matrix could be used to support planning. Links to the full document and other examples can be found below

BloomGardner_matrix_Example (1)

BloomGardner_matrix_Business example

BloomGardner_matrix_worked examples

OFSTED 2012 – Embedding RWCM

Embedding RWCM – Anthony Steed

OFSTED’s 2012 framework first published for implementation January 2012 and then later revised for implementation September 2012 builds upon many of the key components identified in previous Inspection Frameworks.

This post will focus on the main changes in the framework that will be used to judge the quality of teaching.

The new inspection framework for implementation in September 2012 is, in some regards, a case of ‘more of the same’ with respect to judging the quality of teaching. It builds upon many of the key elements contained in the 2009 framework and carried through to the January 2012 framework. Familiar points about the use of assessment, planning, subject knowledge, questioning and feedback are replicated from the frameworks of yore. The most significant difference I noticed when reading was that the points of consideration were fewer in number when compared with January 2012 (10 points down to 7). This appears to be an attempt to simplify  and streamline the framework in order to make its interpretation easier for teachers and to provide more focus to all in the teaching community. In this instance such changes should be welcomed.

So what has changed? Well actually, between January and September 2012, very little. The most significant changes took place between the 2009 and January 2012 frameworks. In the authors opinion, in addition to the familiar elements mentioned above, there are really two significant areas of change in 2012. The first of these is discussed below. The second point will be developed in a subsequent blog post.

The 2012 framework now contains the following line with respect to overall judgements about the quality of teaching.

  • reading, writing, communication and mathematics are well taught

The interpretation of this may seem straightforward to some and less so for others. The reality is that regardless of the subject taught this line of the framework will require some discussion simply because this expectation is cross-curricular. The expectation from OFSTED is that these core skills will be developed and well taught in all subjects – that is to say that Mathematics lessons will need to also develop reading and writing skills as well and English lessons making some provision to develop Mathematics skills.

This will require some prior planning on the part of subject teachers to ensure that, where possible, provision is made for these core skills. It may be worth approaching staff with a particular area of expertise to get help or advice on where core skills can be implemented and whether students are familiar with these skills beforehand. For instance, before asking students to calculate a percentage change it would be worthwhile checking they have covered this in their Maths lessons! It is also important to include any provision of these core skills into your lesson plans/schemes of work as evidence of a sustained and consistent approach.

As a non-specialist in either Mathematics or English I have taken some time to think about different approaches to these four areas. Below is a list of different generic strategies that could (in theory) be applied across all subject areas.

Tips for including core skills for non-specialists;

Reading

Ask students to identify key words before using search engines (reading)

Identify key vocabulary from a piece of text i.e. students make a list of what they think are key words from a text and discuss/compare (reading)

Ask students to use glossary to find what they need (reading)

Ask students to reference their work (reading)

Show evidence of prior planning by asking less able readers to read less challenging text and more able to read more challenging text (reading)

Ask students to find evidence from books/websites independently to back up an opinion (reading)

Asking students to read a piece of text out loud to the class (reading)

Use challenging vocabulary when explaining concepts and highlight to clarify understanding (reading)

Writing

Ask students to write about a topic using a ‘Six word story’ – this teaches them succinctness as well as encouraging them to identify the most pertinent information in a topic (writing)

Ask students to identify key words to be included before undertaking a piece of writing (writing)

Discuss writing strategies that could be employed i.e. how would we evaluate/analyse? (writing)

Model writing strategies for students i.e. write an example response to an examination questions and ask them to identify the evaluative paragraph (writing)

Provide writing frames where necessary showing evidence of planning for prior attainment (writing)

Use self and peer-assessment to enable students to reflect on their writing. Emphasise narrative, prose etc. – not just subject specific content! (writing)

Communication

Ask students to write a blog (communication)

Encourage students to take part in debate that are ordered (communication)

Show students examples of real world communication and ask them to evaluate/discuss their effectiveness/tone/purpose – as well as subject specific content (communication)

Use podcasts/videos as a way of delivering content  (communication)

Allow students to choose the ‘most appropriate’ method of presentation for their work (communication)

Ask students to make presentations (communication)

Ask students to consider the effectiveness of any PowerPoint presentations with respect to target audience (communication)

Mathematics

Highlight any mathematical key words and make provision to explain/question students understanding of these i.e. percentage, trend, volumes (mathematics)

Graphs to compare changes in data over time (mathematics)

Comparing different ways that data could be presented (mathematics)

Please feel free to add any further suggestions below.

Source:

http://www.fromgoodtooutstanding.com/

http://www.usethekey.org.uk/popular-articles/grading-of-lessons-under-the-new-ofsted-framework